Philippikos 1

Prosopography of the Byzantine Empire
Dates695 (taq) / 713 (tpq)
PmbZ No.6150
Variant NamesPhilippicus;
Philippicus (emperor)
LocationsConstantinople (officeplace);
Cherson (Tauric Chersonese) (exileplace);
Kephallenia (exileplace);
Kephallenia (residence);
Kallistratos (Monastery of, Constantinople);
Constantinople (residence);
Cherson (Tauric Chersonese) (residence);
Cherson (Tauric Chersonese);
TitlesPatrikios (dignity);
Augustus (office);
Emperor (office)
Textual SourcesAgatho Diaconus, Epilogus, ed. Riedinger, ACO II 2. 898-901 = Mansi XII 189-196. (theology);
Bar Hebraeus, Chronographia, tr. E. A. W. Budge, The Chronography of Abu 'l-Faraj (London, 1932; repr. Amsterdam, 1976) (history);
Chronicon Anonymi ad annum 1234 pertinens, ed. and tr. J.-B. Chabot, I = CSCO 81-82 (Paris, 1916-20), II = CSCO 109 (Louvain, 1937) (chronicle);
Chronicon ad annum Domini 846 pertinens, ed. E. W. Brooks, tr. J.-B. Chabot, CSCO 3-4 (Louvain, 1904); also tr. E. W. Brooks, "A Syriac Chronicle of the Year 846", Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländ (chronicle);
Chronique de Denys de Tell-Mahré, ed. and tr. J.-B. Chabot (Paris, 1895); tr. A. Palmer, The Seventh Century in West-Syrian Chronicles (Liverpool, 1993), pp. 54-65 (chronicle);
Leo Grammaticus, Chronographia, ed. I. Bekker (Bonn, 1842) (chronicle);
Liber Pontificalis, ed. L. Duchesne, Le liber pontificalis. Texte, introduction et commentaire, 2 vols. (Paris, 1886-92); re-issued with 3rd vol. by C. Vogel, (Paris, 1955-57) (chronicle);
Michael the Syrian, Chronicle, ed. and tr. J.-B. Chabot, La chronique de Michel le Syrien (Paris, 1899-1904) (chronicle);
Nicephorus, Breviarium Historiae, ed. C. Mango, Nikephoros, Patriarch of Constantinople: Short History; prev. ed. C. de Boor Nicephori ArchiepiscopiConstantinopolitani Opuscula Historica Leipzig 1880 (history);
Paulus Diaconus, Historia Gentis Langobardorum, ed. L. Bethmann and G. Waitz, MGH, Scr. Rer. Lang., pp. 12-187; also in MGH, Scr. Rer. Ger. 48, pp. 49-242 (history);
Theophanes Confessor, Chronographia, ed. C. de Boor, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1883-85, repr. Hildesheim/NewYork, 1980); tr. and comm. C. Mango and R. Scott, The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor, Oxford 1997 (chronicle);
Zonaras = Ioannis Zonarae Epitome Historiarum, libri XIII-XVIII, ed. Th. Büttner-Wobst, (Bonn, 1897) (history)

A Persarmenian (not a Pergamenian, see below), son of Nikephoros 1, Philippikos 1 was called Bardanes: Agatho Diac. (Mansi XII 192) (Βαρδάνην τοὔνομα, υἱὸν γεγονότα Νικηφόρου τὸ γένος Περσα<ρ>μηνίου) (not Περγαμηνίου, as in Mansi XII 192; see Riedinger, II 2. 899 line 9, and Brandes, "Armenier in Pergamon?", BZ 86/ 87, p. 73), Theoph. AM 6194 (called "Philippikos, son of Nikephoros the patrician" - Φιλιππικόν, τὸν υἱὸν Νικηφόρου τοῦ πατρικίου), Zon. XIV 24. 7 (Philippikos son of Nikephoros), Leo Gramm. 167 (son of Nikephoros), 169 (Φιλιππικὸς ὁ καὶ Βαρδάνης), Paul. Diac., Hist. Lang. VI 34 ("Filippicus, qui et Bardanis dictus est").

Philippikos 1's name was originally Bardanes and he is said to have taken the name Philippikos when he was proclaimed emperor: Agatho Diac. (Riedinger II 2, p. 899, lines 9-10, Mansi XII 192) (ἑαυτὸν Φιλιππικὸν τῷ δόκειν μετονόμασας). Wrongly called the son of Bardanes: Zon. XIV 25. 17. A native of Armenia: Nic. Brev. de Boor 44, Mango 45 (and see above). He was brought up as a monothelete and was once a pupil of the famous monothelete Stephanos 17 (himself a disciple of the monothelete patriarch of Antioch, Makarios 1): Agatho Diac. (Riedinger II 2, p. 899, lines 15-16, Mansi XII 192) (μαθητευθεὶς καὶ φοίτησας παιδόθεν κατὰ καιροὺς Στεπηάνῳ τῷ ἀββᾷ μαθητῇ Μακαρίου).

According to Theophanes, the imperial throne was foretold for him by an unnamed monk of the monastery of Kallistratos (Anonymus 224), who prophesied that his reign would be long and prosperous if he overthrew the decisions of the Sixth Ecumenical Council; the prophecy, apparently delivered first during the first reign of Justinian II (Ioustinianos 1), was repeated twice, when Leontios 2 and then when Tiberios III Apsimar (Tiberios 2) seized the throne; under Tiberios 2 he revealed the prophecy to a friend, who informed the emperor, and Philippikos (so-called here) was shorn and put in irons and exiled to Kephalonia; the date was 702; after Justinian II (Ioustinianos 1) became emperor again Philippikos 1 was recalled: Theoph. AM 6203, cf. Theoph. AM 6194 (exiled to Kephalonia by Tiberios 2 in 702 after a dream in which an eagle hovered over him), Zon. XIV 24. 7, 25. 17 (exiled to Kephalonia), 26. 2 (the prophecy of the monk of Kallistratos Anonymus 224), Leo Gramm. 167 (exiled to Kephalonia by Tiberios 2 after dreaming of the eagle), 170 (story of the monk of Kallistratos Anonymus 224).

In 710 however Philippikos 1 was sent into exile again, this time to Cherson, where he was sent with the expedition under Stephanos 5: Nic. Brev. de Boor 44, Mango 45, Theoph. AM 6203. While still in exile at Cherson, in 711, he was acclaimed as emperor there (and given the name Philippikos, according to Theophanes); later, when the expedition sent by Justinian II (Ioustinianos 1) under Mauros 1 approached, he fled for refuge to the Khazars, but Mauros 1 changed sides and Bardanes (Philippikos 1) was acclaimed emperor again at Cherson (and renamed Philippikos now, according to Nicephorus); an embassy to the Khazars secured his return: Nic. Brev. de Boor 46, Mango 45, Theoph. AM 6203, Zon. XIV 25. 17, cf. Agatho Diac. (Mansi XII 192) (he was exiled to Cherson on suspicion of aiming at the throne (διὰ πρόφασιν τυραννίδος) and was there proclaimed emperor when the army and fleet sent against Cherson rebelled instead against the emperor Justinian II [Ioustinianos 1]), Paul. Diac., Hist. Lang. VI 31-32 (exiled to Pontus by Justinian II [Ioustinianos 1], he was proclaimed emperor by the army sent by Justinian II [Ioustinianos 1] to arrest him), Leo Gramm. 169 (an exile in Cherson, he won over some of the troops and rebelled). He sailed to Constantinople and entered without fighting, during the absence of Justinian II (Ioustinianos 1); he overthrew Justinian II (Ioustinianos 1) without having to fight, and sent his head to the West, to Rome: Nic. Brev. de Boor 47, Mango 45, Theoph. AM 6203, Zon. XIV 25. 21ff., Chron. 1234, §154 (p. 299) (called "Philippikos the patrician"), Paul. Diac., Hist. Lang. VI 32, Leo Gramm. 169.

The successor of Justinian II (Ioustinianos 1), Philippikos 1 was a heretic and his statement of faith on his accession was rejected by the pope and a council in Rome: Lib. Pont. 90. 8, Paul. Diac., Hist. Lang. VI 34. One of his first acts, before he would enter the palace, was to destroy an icon of the Third Council of Constantinople (the Sixth Ecumenical Council) and to reject its condemnation of monotheletism; he also burned the copy of the Acts of the Council, written by Agatho 3, which was kept in the imperial palace: Agatho Diac. (Riedinger II 2, p. 899, lines 16-31, Mansi XII 192) He condemned the Sixth Ecumenical Council and reaffirmed monotheletism: Theoph. AM 6204, Zon. XIV 26. 1-3, Leo Gramm. 170. Said to have taken down (not to have destroyed) the icon representing the six ecumenical councils (it was replaced by the emperor Theodosios 2 in 715): Lib. Pont. 91. 5 (cited under Theodosios 2), Paul. Diac., Hist. Lang. VI 34, 36.

Philippikos 1 reigned for two years and was then overthrown by the army in Thrace; on 3 July 713 (Saturday of Pentecost, in indiction eleven)

he was deposed and blinded: Agatho Diac. (Mansi XII 193). In the second year of his reign, in 713, he was overthrown and blinded in the hippodrome by Rouphos 1, acting for Georgios 6 and Theodoros 6; he was succeeded by his own secretary, Artemios (Anastasios 6): Nic. Brev. de Boor 49, Mango 48, Theoph. AM 6205, AM 6209, Zon. XIV 26. 9-10, Leo Gramm. 170, Chron. 1234, §§154-5(p. 299). He was emperor for two years and nine months: Theoph. AM 6207 (the figures are wrong; his reign was about one year six months). Described as a heretic ("Philippicus hereticus"), he was overthrown and succeeded by Anastasios 6; the news was greeted in Rome with rapture: Lib. Pont. 90. 11. Overthrown by Anastasios 6 after a reign lasting one year and six months, he was blinded but was allowed to live: Paul. Diac., Hist. Lang. VI 34.

Philippikos 1 is described as "very quick, and capable in intelligence, and eloquent in speech, and he was well rounded in every outside discipline": Chron. 1234, §154 (p. 299), cf. Zon. XIV 26. 5 (ἐν μὲν γὰρ τῷ λέγειν ἐδόκει ῥητορικώτατος μὴ ἀμοιρῶν τε συνέσεως, ἐν δὲ τῷ πράττειν ἦν ξυμπάντων ἀσυνετώτερος καὶ πάμπαν ἀδέξιος).

Philippikos 1 became emperor for one and a half years after the overthrow of the emperor Justinian II (Ioustinianos 1) and his son Tiberios 4 but was then overthrown himself and replaced by Anastasios 6 after trying to call a church council to establish the heresy of the Maronites: Chron. 846, p. 231, 7-11 = p. 175 (Chabot) = p. 580 (Brooks). He reigned for three years in succession to Justinian II (Ioustinianos 1) and was succeeded by Anastasios 6: Pseudo-Dion., Chron., p. 156, 10-15 = p. 117. In the year 1022 Sel. (710/711) he rebelled against the emperor Justinian II (Ioustinianos 1) and overthrew him, killing him and his son Tiberios 4 and becoming emperor himself; he drove the Armenians out of the empire and they became allies of the Arabs; after two years and six months he was overthrown and blinded after trying to reverse the decisions of the Sixth Ecumenical Council and was succeeded by Anastasios 6: Bar Hebr., p. 106 (Piliphiqos), Mich. Syr. II 479, 482.

An image of Philippikos 1 is to be found on the seal of Anonymus 432: Zacos and Veglery 210.

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