Stephanos 17

Prosopography of the Byzantine Empire
FloruitM/L VII
Dates680 (taq) / 682 (tpq)
Variant NamesStephanus
LocationsRome (exileplace);
Antioch (Syria) (residence);
Rome (residence);
Antioch (Syria);
Textual SourcesConstantinople, Third Council of (Sixth Ecumenical Council), ed. R. Riedinger, Concilium Universale Constantinopolitanum Tertium, ACO II.2. 1 (Berlin, 1990-1992); also cited from Mansi XI passim (conciliar);
Liber Pontificalis, ed. L. Duchesne, Le liber pontificalis. Texte, introduction et commentaire, 2 vols. (Paris, 1886-92); re-issued with 3rd vol. by C. Vogel, (Paris, 1955-57) (chronicle);
Photius, Epistulae, ed. B. Laourdas and L. G. Westerink, 3 vols. (Leipzig, 1983-85) (letters);
Zonaras = Ioannis Zonarae Epitome Historiarum, libri XIII-XVIII, ed. Th. Büttner-Wobst, (Bonn, 1897) (history)

Stephanos 17 was a monk (perhaps hegoumenos) and a monothelete; he was a disciple of Makarios 1 and taught the future monothelete emperor Philippikos Bardanes (Philippikos 1): Agatho Diac. (Mansi XII 192) (Στεφάνῳ τῷ ἀββᾷ μαθητῇ Μακαρίου). He was a priest and monk and was a disciple of the archbishop of Antioch, Makarios 1; like him he was a monothelete; he attended the first eight sessions of the Third Council of Constantinople (the Sixth Ecumenical Council) and was admitted late to the ninth together with others named by Theodoros 26, bishop of Melitene, as entertaining reservations about the condemnation of monotheletism: Riedinger, pp. 18-270 (= Mansi XI 212-382). In the lists of those attending each session he is styled Στεφάνου πρεσβυτέρου καὶ μοναχοῦ τοῦ μαθητοῦ Μακαρίου (i.e. Makarios 1): Riedinger, p. 18, lines 28-29, p. 30, lines 30-31, etc. (= Mansi XI 212, 220, etc.). A convinced monothelete, he was one of the leading spokesmen in defence of his beliefs at the Council: Riedinger, pp. 22ff. (= Mansi XI 213ff.). Regularly alluded to as the disciple of Makarios 1: Riedinger, p. 22, lines 11-12, etc. (= Mansi XI 213, etc.). At the eighteenth and final session of the Council, in the address of the Council to the emperor, Stephanos 17 is described as the teacher as much as the disciple of Makarios 1 (Στέφανον τὸν τούτου μαθητὴν μᾶλλον δὲ λέγειν καθηγητήν): Riedinger, p. 816, lines 3-4 (= Mansi XI 665A). At the first session he produced from the Acts of the First Council of Ephesus (the Third Ecumenical Council) a quotation from Cyril of Alexandria to justify monotheletism: Riedinger, p. 24, lines 7-15 (= Mansi XI 216). At the sixth session (12 February) he and Makarios 1 declared that they had no further testimony to add to the three volumes (κωδίκια) of statements from the Fathers already read out to support the doctrine of One Will: Riedinger, p. 176, lines 23-26 (= Mansi XI 326). At the eighth session (9 March) he was named by the bishop of Melitene, Theodoros 26, as among those responsible with him (i.e. Theodoros 26) for a statement noting that the doctrine of One Will or Two had not been settled at any of the previous five ecumenical councils; he was identified by Theodoros 26 as the person who had given him the document; alone of those named by Theodoros 26 he did not deny knowledge of the document: Riedinger, pp. 204-208 (= Mansi XI 341-345). He was alluded to at Riedinger, p. 204, line 23 (= Mansi XI 341) by Theodoros 26 as οὗτος ὁ ἀββᾶς Στέφανος ὁ τοῦ πατριάρχου Ἀντιοχείας and was pointed out where he was standing behind Makarios 1's chair. Later in the eighth session he and Makarios 1 were questioned on the doctrine of Will by Theophanes 5; under questioning Stephanos 17 declared his belief that the Will of Adam was the same as that of God; he and Makarios were both denounced as heretics by the Council and deposed: Riedinger, pp. 240-246 (= Mansi XI 365-369). He was one of a group of bishops and clergy admitted to the ninth session (8 March) to defend themselves but after further questioning he was declared a heretic and expelled from the Council: Riedinger, pp. 266-276 (= Mansi XI 381-385) (cf. Riedinger, p. 276, line 5 (= Mansi XI 385): Καὶ ὠθούμενος Στέφανος ὁ μαθητὴς Μακαρίου ἐξεβλήθη). Documents written in his hand and composed by him and Makarios 1 were produced for examination at the eleventh session of the Council; they had been found in their lodgings, apparently: Riedinger, pp. 496-512 (= Mansi XI 509-517) (see Makarios 1). At the fourteenth session he and Makarios 1 were found to have inserted the libelli of Vigilius into copies of the Acts of the Fifth Ecumenical Council (see Georgios 34, Philippos 1); his father (unnamed) was a neighbour of the owner of one of the copies, Philippos 1: Riedinger, p. 650 (= Mansi XI 592-593).

He is recorded as one of those anathematised by the Council in the definition of the faith sent to the bishop of Rome, Agatho 1: Riedinger, p. 889, line 4 (= Mansi XI 685). In the imperial edict issued after the Council he is named as a monothelete, a follower of Makarios 1 and a teacher of the heresy: Riedinger, p. 834, line 18, p. 852, line 17 (= Mansi XI 700, 712).

After the Council he was sent with Makarios 1 and Polychronios 3 to Rome for the new pope Leo II (Leo 16) to convince of their errors: Riedinger, p. 896, lines 27-31, p. 864, lines 5-8, cf. p. 878 (= Mansi X 716, 724, cf. 733) (without success), Lib. Pont. 81. 14. Condemned as a monothelete at the Council, he was exiled to Rome with Makarios 1; he refused to abandon his faith and was confined in a monastery by pope Leo II (Leo 16): Lib.Pont. 82. 2.

A disciple of Makarios 1 and a monothelete, he was an elderly man when he was condemned at the Sixth Ecumenical Council: Zon. XIV 21. 9. A monothelete and a supporter of Makarios 1, he was condemned with him at the Sixth Ecumenical Council: Photius, Ep. 1, line 332 (I 12 Laourdas-Westerink).

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