Ioustinianos 1

Prosopography of the Byzantine Empire
Dates682 (taq) / 711 (ob.)
PmbZ No.3556
Variant NamesYwstynynws;
Justinian II
Cherson (Tauric Chersonese) (residence);
Phanagouria (Zichia) (residence);
Constantinople (residence);
Cherson (Tauric Chersonese);
Phanagouria (Zichia);
TitlesAugustus (office);
Emperor (office)
Textual SourcesBar Hebraeus, Chronographia, tr. E. A. W. Budge, The Chronography of Abu 'l-Faraj (London, 1932; repr. Amsterdam, 1976) (history);
Chronicon Anonymi ad annum 1234 pertinens, ed. and tr. J.-B. Chabot, I = CSCO 81-82 (Paris, 1916-20), II = CSCO 109 (Louvain, 1937) (chronicle);
Chronicon Anonymum ad annum 819 pertinens, ed. Aphram Barsaum (CSCO 81, 1920), trans. J.-B. Chabot, CSCO 109, Scriptores Syri 56 (Louvain, 1937) (chronicle);
Chronicon ad annum Domini 846 pertinens, ed. E. W. Brooks, tr. J.-B. Chabot, CSCO 3-4 (Louvain, 1904); also tr. E. W. Brooks, "A Syriac Chronicle of the Year 846", Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländ (chronicle);
Chronique de Denys de Tell-Mahré, ed. and tr. J.-B. Chabot (Paris, 1895); tr. A. Palmer, The Seventh Century in West-Syrian Chronicles (Liverpool, 1993), pp. 54-65 (chronicle);
Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De Administrando Imperio, ed. G. Moravcsik, trans. R. J. H. Jenkins (Washington, D.C., 1967) (history);
Liber Pontificalis, ed. L. Duchesne, Le liber pontificalis. Texte, introduction et commentaire, 2 vols. (Paris, 1886-92); re-issued with 3rd vol. by C. Vogel, (Paris, 1955-57) (chronicle);
Michael the Syrian, Chronicle, ed. and tr. J.-B. Chabot, La chronique de Michel le Syrien (Paris, 1899-1904) (chronicle);
Necrologium Imperatorum, ed. R. Cessi, Origo Civitatum Italiae seu Venetiarum , Fonti per la storia d' Italia 73 (Rome, 1933), pp. 102-119 (list);
Nicephorus, Breviarium Historiae, ed. C. Mango, Nikephoros, Patriarch of Constantinople: Short History; prev. ed. C. de Boor Nicephori ArchiepiscopiConstantinopolitani Opuscula Historica Leipzig 1880 (history);
Paulus Diaconus, Historia Gentis Langobardorum, ed. L. Bethmann and G. Waitz, MGH, Scr. Rer. Lang., pp. 12-187; also in MGH, Scr. Rer. Ger. 48, pp. 49-242 (history);
Theophanes Confessor, Chronographia, ed. C. de Boor, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1883-85, repr. Hildesheim/NewYork, 1980); tr. and comm. C. Mango and R. Scott, The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor, Oxford 1997 (chronicle);
Zonaras = Ioannis Zonarae Epitome Historiarum, libri XIII-XVIII, ed. Th. Büttner-Wobst, (Bonn, 1897) (history)

Ioustinianos 1 was the son of the emperor Constantine IV (Konstantinos 2): Agatho Diac. (Mansi XII 192), Nic. Brev. de Boor 36, Mango 38, Theoph. AM 6173 (Ἰουστινιανῷ τῷ υἱῷ αὐτοῦ), Theoph. AM 6177 (Ἰουστινιανὸς ὁ υἱὸς αὐτοῦ), Zon. XIV 21. 22 (τῷ υἱῷ Ἰουστινιανῷ), Chron. 1234, §145 (p. 292), Lib. Pont. 83. 3, Paul. Diac., Hist. Lang. VI 11 (described as his younger son - "eius minor filius Iustinianus"). He was nephew of Heraklios 1 and Tiberios 1 (implicit because these were the brothers of his father Konstantinos 2): Theoph. AM 6173, Theoph. AM 6177. He had a brother, Heraklios 5: Lib. Pont. 83. 3 (locks of their hair ("mallones capillorum domni Iustiniani et Heraclii filiorum clementissimi principis") were sent to Rome).

He began to reign, jointly with his father, in c. 682: Theoph. AM 6173. He became sole emperor on the death of his father in 685: Agatho Diac., Nic. Brev. de Boor 36, Mango 38, Theoph. AM 6177, Zon. XIV 21. 22, Chron. 1234, §146 (p. 292), Paul. Diac., Hist. Lang. VI 11. The date was early September, indiction fourteen (early September 685): Lib. Pont. 84. 3 ("in initia mensis Septembris, ind. XIIII"). He was then aged sixteen: Nic. Brev. de Boor 36, Mango 38, Zon. XIV 22. 1. He was therefore born in c. 669. His reign lasted for ten years, until he was expelled and succeeded by Leontios 2; his nose and his tongue were mutilated and he was sent into exile at Cherson: Nic. Brev. de Boor 38-39, Mango 40 (his life was supposedly spared by Leontios 2 out of respect for Ioustinianos 1's father, Konstantinos 2), Theoph. AM 6177, Theoph. AM 6187, Zon. XIV 22. 34 (supposedly after reigning for sixteen years), Chron. 1234, §151 (p. 297), Lib. Pont. 86. 9 (overthrown), Paul. Diac., Hist. Lang. VI 11 (ten years), 12 (overthrown), 32 (disfigured).

In exile he planned to regain the throne; to escape a plot to murder him he fled from Cherson and appealed for support to the khagan of the Khazars, Anonymus 176; the khagan Anonymus 176 received him with honour and gave him his sister Theodora 1 in marriage and on the khagan's advice he lived with her in Phanagouria; at the instigation of the emperor Tiberios 2 the khagan Anonymus 176 plotted to kill him, but the plot was disclosed by Theodora 1 and Ioustinianos 1 himself killed both the would-be assassins (see Papatzys 1 and Balgitzis 1); he then sent Theodora 1 to live with her father (sic; see Anonymus 176) and went via Tomi to Cherson to gather followers (see Barisbakourios 1) and from there to the river Danube where he obtained the support of the ruler of the Bulgars, Terbelis (Tervel 1), sending his follower Stephanos 3 with promises of gifts and of his daughter's hand in marriage; Tervel 1 mounted an expedition against Constantinople and helped him to regain his throne: Nic. Brev. de Boor 40-41, Mango 42, Theoph. AM 6196, Zon. XIV 24. 8-18, Chron. 1234, §152 (p. 297), Lib. Pont. 88. 4 (he regained his throne, travelling "a partibus Chazariae per loca Vulgariae cum Terveli usque ad regiam urbem"), Paul. Diac., Hist. Lang. VI 31 (regained the throne with Tervel 1's help).

He regained the throne, overthrowing Tiberios 2 in 705 and reigned for six more years: Nic. Brev. de Boor 41, Mango 42, Theoph. AM 6177, AM 6197, cf. Agatho Diac. (deposed, he regained the throne after the reigns of Leontios 2 and Tiberios 2). He executed both Tiberios 2 and Leontios 2 and many of their followers and honoured Tervel 1 with an imperial cloak and the title of Kaisar; he summoned his wife Theodora 1 from the land of the Khazars, together with his son by her, Tiberios 4, and crowned them: Nic. Brev. de Boor 42-43, Mango 42, Theoph. AM 6198, Zon. XIV 25. 1-7, Chron. 1234, §152 (pp. 297-298), Lib. Pont. 88. 4 (execution of Leontius and Tiberius), Paul. Diac., Hist. Lang. VI 31 (executed Leontios 2 and Tiberios 2).

In 711 he was overthrown by Philippikos 1 and executed by Philippikos 1's general, Elias 1: Nic. Brev. de Boor 47, Mango 45, Theoph. AM 6203, Agatho Diac. (executed and beheaded ἐν τῷ Δαματίκῳ λεγομένῳ τόπῳ τῆς Βιθύνων ἐπαρχίας), Zon. XIV 25. 24-26, cf. Theoph. AM 6209 (p. 395) (overthrown), Chron. 1234, § 154 (p. 299) (his overthrow), Lib. Pont. 90. 8 (overthrown, murdered and succeeded by Philippikos), Paul. Diac., Hist. Lang. VI 32 (overthrown after six years joint rule with his son, murdered and succeeded by Philippikos). He was murdered at Damatra on 24 November, his head was paraded through the provinces and his body was thrown into the sea: Necrologium Imperatorum, see Grierson, "Tombs and Obits", pp. 50-51 (correcting the date to 4 November).

His mother was Anastasia 1, his wife was Theodora 1 and he had a son, Tiberios 4; Nic. Brev. de Boor 43, 47, Mango 42, 45, Theoph. AM 6196 (εἰς γυναῖκα Θεοδώρα), Theoph. AM 6198 (σου τὴν γυναῖκα ... ἰδοὺ ἐτέχθη σοι καὶ υἱός), Theoph. AM 6203 (Ἀναστασίαν τὴν τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ μητέρα ... τὸν αὐτῆς ἔγγονα Τιβέριον), Theoph. AM 6229 (ὃς ἔλεγεν ἑαυτὸν Τιβέριον υἱὸν εἶναι Ἰουστινιανοῦ), Zon. XIV 24. 8, 25. 7, 25. 27, Chron. 1234, §154 (p. 299) (his son, Tiberios 4), Lib. Pont. 90. 5 (father of Tiberios 4). He also had a daughter (Anonyma 15), mentioned in 704 in the negotiations with Tervel 1: Theoph. AM 6196 (τὴν ἑαυτοῦ θυγατέρα εἰς γυναῖκα), Nic. Brev. de Boor 42, Mango 42, Zon. XIV 24. 15. The mother of this girl was doubtless Eudokia 8; Eudokia 8 was a wife of Ioustinianos 1 and was buried in the Mausoleum of Justinian at the Church of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople: Const. Porph., De Cer. II 42 (Reiske, 644).

Ioustinianos 1 reigned for twenty-seven years after year 992 Sel. (AD 680/681) and he confirmed the Council which his father had called and expelled those who did not accept its dogma; he was driven from the throne, his nose was cut off, and he was sent into exile; he was replaced by Leontios 2, who reigned for three years before being replaced by Apsimaros (Tiberios 2), who also reigned for three years and then Ioustinianos 1 returned from exile with a large army and regained the throne, killing all the leading men; later he was again overthrown and killed, together with his son Tiberios 4, and was succeeded by Philippikos 1: Chron. 846, p. 230, 25-p. 231, 8 = p. 175 (Chabot) = p. 579ff. (Brooks). In 1006 Sel. (AD 694/695) Ioustinianos 1 was driven from the throne and replaced by Leontios 2; he was mutilated by the cutting off of his nose: Chron. 819, p. 13, 12-16 = p. 9. In the year 1008 Sel. (AD 696/697) Konstantinos 2 died and Ioustinianos 1 succeeded him as ruler of the Romans for ten years: Pseudo-Dion., Chron., p. 155, 13-15 = p. 116. In the year 1018 Sel. (AD 706/707) Ioustinianos 1 died and was succeeded by Leontios 2: Pseudo-Dion., Chron., p. 155, 21-23 = p. 117. Ioustinianos 1 reigned for six years after Apsimar (Tiberios 2) and was succeeded by Philippikos 1; this is placed under the year 1024 Sel. (AD 712/713): Pseudo-Dion., Chron., p. 156, 10-13 = p. 117.

Son of Konstantinos 2: Bar Hebr., p. 101. He became ruler when his father died in the year 997 Sel. (AD 685/686) and reigned for ten years; he agreed a ten-year peace with the Arabs under Abd al-Malik (Abdulmalik 1), agreeing to withdraw his pro-Roman brigands from Arab lands in return for payments of money, horses and slaves; it was also agreed that Cyprus should be held jointly but that Armenia, Gurzan, Arzan and Azerbaijan should be subject to the Romans: Bar Hebr., p. 103, Mich. Syr. II 473. He then broke the agreement and attacked Cyprus, but was defeated by the Arabs in Cappadocia and was deserted by the Slavs in his army: Bar Hebr., pp. 103-104, Mich. Syr. II 473. He began to murder members of the Roman nobility and they then turned against him and deposed him, cutting off his nose: Bar Hebr., p. 104, Mich. Syr. II 473. In the year 1015 Sel. (AD 703/704) he escaped from exile and went to the khagan of the Khazars; he married the daughter (Theodora 1) of the khagan and they had a son, Tiberios 4; then, with troops from the khagan and from the Bulgars he returned to Constantinople and overthrew Tiberios 2; he reigned for a further six years and executed Leontios 2, Tiberios 2 and many of the nobility: Bar Hebr., p. 105, Mich. Syr. II 478. In the year 1022 Sel. (AD 710/711) he was overthrown by Philippikos 1 and killed with his son Tiberios 4: Bar Hebr., p. 106, Mich. Syr. II 479.

Called Rhinotmetos: Const. Porph., DAI 21, 30ff. He succeeded his father (Konstantinos 2) as ruler of the Romans: Const. Porph., DAI 21, 48ff. Driven out by Leontios 2, he later returned in triumph and executed both Leontios 2 and Apsimar (Tiberios 2): Const. Porph., DAI 22, 4ff., 22, 34ff. On imperial seals his son's name is joined with his; cf. Zacos and Veglery 29 ("dn Iustini[an]us et Tiberius pp") and 2760. In the Liber Pontificalis he is described in the Life of pope Constantinus (Konstantinos 136) as "Iustinianus christianissimus et orthodoxus imperator": Lib. Pont. 90. 8.

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