Abdulmalik 1

Prosopography of the Byzantine Empire
Dates685 (taq) / 705 (ob.)
PmbZ No.18
Variant NamesAbimelech;
`bd 'lmlk;
`Abd al-Malik
LocationsMopsuestia (deathplace);
Damascus (officeplace);
Damascus (residence);
TitlesCaliph (office)
Textual SourcesBar Hebraeus, Chronographia, tr. E. A. W. Budge, The Chronography of Abu 'l-Faraj (London, 1932; repr. Amsterdam, 1976) (history);
Chronicon Anonymi ad annum 1234 pertinens, ed. and tr. J.-B. Chabot, I = CSCO 81-82 (Paris, 1916-20), II = CSCO 109 (Louvain, 1937) (chronicle);
Chronicon Anonymum ad annum 819 pertinens, ed. Aphram Barsaum (CSCO 81, 1920), trans. J.-B. Chabot, CSCO 109, Scriptores Syri 56 (Louvain, 1937) (chronicle);
Chronicon ad annum Domini 846 pertinens, ed. E. W. Brooks, tr. J.-B. Chabot, CSCO 3-4 (Louvain, 1904); also tr. E. W. Brooks, "A Syriac Chronicle of the Year 846", Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländ (chronicle);
Chronique de Denys de Tell-Mahré, ed. and tr. J.-B. Chabot (Paris, 1895); tr. A. Palmer, The Seventh Century in West-Syrian Chronicles (Liverpool, 1993), pp. 54-65 (chronicle);
Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De Administrando Imperio, ed. G. Moravcsik, trans. R. J. H. Jenkins (Washington, D.C., 1967) (history);
Elias Barshinaya, Chronicle (Eliae metropolitae Nisibeni, Opus chronologicum, pars prior, ed. and tr. E. W. Brooks, CSCO 62 and CSCO 63 (1910) (chronicle);
Michael the Syrian, Chronicle, ed. and tr. J.-B. Chabot, La chronique de Michel le Syrien (Paris, 1899-1904) (chronicle);
Nicephorus, Breviarium Historiae, ed. C. Mango, Nikephoros, Patriarch of Constantinople: Short History; prev. ed. C. de Boor Nicephori ArchiepiscopiConstantinopolitani Opuscula Historica Leipzig 1880 (history);
Theophanes Confessor, Chronographia, ed. C. de Boor, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1883-85, repr. Hildesheim/NewYork, 1980); tr. and comm. C. Mango and R. Scott, The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor, Oxford 1997 (chronicle);
Zonaras = Ioannis Zonarae Epitome Historiarum, libri XIII-XVIII, ed. Th. Büttner-Wobst, (Bonn, 1897) (history)

Abdulmalik 1 was called Abimelech in Theophanes and Zonaras; `Abd al-Malik (`bd 'lmlk) in Chron. 1234; and `Abd al-Malik b. Marwan in Tabari. Son of Marwan 1: Chron. 1234, §145 (pp. 291-292), Theoph. AM 6175, Tabari XVIII, pp. 173, 224. Brother of Muhammad 2: Chron. 1234, §147 (p. 293). A younger brother was `Abd al-Aziz (Abdul Aziz 2): Chron. 1234, §149 (p. 294). Father of Abdullah 4: Chron. 1234, §151 (p. 297). Father also of Walid 1, who succeeded him as caliph: Chron. 1234, §153 (p. 298). Two other sons were Maslama 1 and Sulayman 4: Chron. 1234, §153 (p. 298), §155 (p. 300), §161 (p. 306). Father also of Yezid 2: Chron. 1234, §163 (p. 308). He succeeded his father, Marwan 1, as ruler in 684/685: Chron. 1234, §145 (p. 292) ("in the year 996"), Theoph. AM 6175. He held office (τὴν ἀρχὴν ἀμηρεύσας ἔτη κα') for twenty-one-and-a-half years, overthrowing the rebellions of Abdelas (Abdullah 3) and of Dadachos (i.e. Dahak; Al-Dahhak 2): Theoph. AM 6175. Having become ruler of his people (τοῦ ἔθνους), he sent envoys to the emperor Constantine IV (Konstantinos 2) seeking a peace treaty on the same terms as those formerly agreed by Mu`awiya 1: Theoph. AM 6176, Chron. 1234, §145 (p. 292).

In c. 686 he made a peace treaty with the new emperor Justinian II (Ioustinianos 1), under which the Mardaïtai were to leave Lebanon and Abdulmalik 1 would make payments to the Romans for ten years: Chron. 1234, §146 (p. 292), Theoph. AM 6178, Zon. XIV 22. 4. In the same year he sent Ziadus (Ziyad 1) against al-Mukhtar 1 in Persia and himself captured and killed the rebel Umar son of Sa`id (see Sa`id 1) in Damascus: Chron. 1234, §147 (pp. 292-293), Theoph. AM 6178. In c. 687 he defeated and killed Mousaros (probably Mousabos 1) and subjected Persia to his rule: Theoph. AM 6180. In c. 689 he sent al-Hajjaj 1 ("the Khagan" in Theoph.) and his own brother Muhammad 2 against Abdullah ibn Zubayr (i.e. Abdullah 3) at Mecca: Chron. 1234, §147 (p. 293), Theoph. AM 6181. After the defeat and death of Abdullah 3, Abdulmalik 1 was ruler of Persia, Mesopotamia and Arabia, the civil wars were at an end and the Arab empire was at peace: Theoph. AM 6181, AM 6182.

He appointed Athanasios 4 of Edessa as vizir of his younger brother `Abd al-Aziz (Abdul Aziz 2) in Egypt: Chron. 1234, §149 (pp. 294-295). He was the first caliph to mint coinage without images but with the name of the Prophet on one side and his own on the other: Chron. 1234, §150 (p. 296).

He protested to Justinian II (Ioustinianos 1) when the emperor refused to accept the new coinage and also when he broke the treaty with regard to Cyprus in 690 ("in the year 1002 of the Greeks") and attempted to transport the population of the island: Chron. 1234, § 150 (p. 296), Theoph. AM 6183. He ordered his brother Muhammad 2 to begin raids into Roman territory: Chron. 1234, §150 (p. 296). He had the temple at Mecca built and planned to re-erect the fallen columns of Gethsemane but was instead persuaded to ask Justinian II (Ioustinianos 1) to provide new ones (see Sergios 5 and Patrikios 1): Theoph. AM 6183. After Carthage and Africa were recovered for the Roman empire by Ioannes 7, they were recaptured by the unnamed ruler of the Saracens (ὁ δὲ τῶν Σαρακηνῶν βασιλεύς: Nic. Brev.; ὁ δὲ πρωτοσύμβουλος: Theoph., Zon.; i.e. `Abdulmalik): Nic. Brev. dB 39, Mango 41:11-12, Theoph. AM 6190, Zon. XIV 23.4. In 701 ("in the year 1013") he sent his son Abdullah 4 on a raid into Roman territory: Chron. 1234, §151 (p. 297). He died in February 705 after a reign of twenty-two years and was succeeded by his son Walid 1: Chron. 1234, §153 (p. 298), cf. Theoph. AM 6197 (the ruler of the Arabs - ὁ τῶν Ἀράβων ἀρχηγός - he died in 705 and was succeeded by his son Walid 1).

Abimelech was the son of Marouam (Marwan 1); he succeeded his father as ruler of the Arabs and ruled them for twenty-two years; he defeated and killed Abdullah ibn Zubair (Abdullah 3): Const. Porph., DAI 21, 43ff. He negotiated with Justinian II (Ioustinianos 1) over the withdrawal of the Mardaïtai from the Lebanon: Const. Porph., DAI 22, 9ff. Under him the Arabs captured Africa: Const. Porph., DAI 22, 27ff.

Son of the caliph Marwan: Elias, Chron., p. 148, lines 18-27 = p. 71ff., Chron. 819, p. 13, lines 1-5 = p. 8, Chron. 846, p. 231, lines 25-28 = p. 175 (Chabot) = p. 580 (Brooks), Bar Hebr., p. 103. His father died on 27 Ramadan, AH 65 (April/May 685) and Abdulmalik 1 succeeded him: Elias, Chron., p. 148, lines 18-27 = p. 71ff. He made peace with the Romans on 7 Tammuz, AH 65 (7 July 685): Elias, Chron., p. 148, lines 18-27 = p. 71ff. In AH 69 (July 688/July 689) = 999 Sel. (687/688) he made peace with the Romans, agreeing to pay the Romans one thousand dinars each week: Elias, Chron., p. 150, lines 3-10 = p. 72. In AH 77 (April 696/March 697) = 1007 Sel. (695/696) he sent his brother (sic) Walid 1 to invade Roman territory: Elias, Chron., p. 153, lines 10-14 = p. 73ff. In AH 78 (March 697/March 698) = 1008 Sel. (696/697) he sent the Ghassanite, Hassan ibn Nu'man (Asan 1) to invade Roman territory: Elias, Chron., pp. 153, lines 24-154, line 2 = p. 74. In AH 83 (Feb. 702/Jan. 703) = 1013 Sel. (701/702) either he or his son Abdallah 4 invaded Roman territory: Elias, Chron., pp. 155, lines 22-156, line 1 = p. 75. In AH 86 (Jan./Dec. 705) = 1016 Sel. (704/705) `Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan died and was succeeded on 14 Shawwal (Oct. 705) by his brother (sic) Walid 1: Elias, Chron., p. 157, lines 1-5 = p. 75.

He succeeded his father in 996 Sel. (684/685) and reigned for twenty-one years; he made peace with the Romans for three years and paid them each day a tribute of one thousand denarii (dinars) and one Arab horse: Chron. 819, p. 13, lines 1-5 = p. 8, Chron. 846, p. 231, lines 25-28 = p. 175 (Chabot) = p. 580 (Brooks). He died in 1016 Sel. (704/705) and was succeeded by his son Walid 1: Chron. 819, p. 14, line 5 = p. 9, Chron. 846, p. 232, lines 24ff. = p. 176 (Chabot) = p. 581 (Brooks).

He succeeded Marwan 1 as the ruler of the Arabs in the year 993 Sel. (681/682) and reigned for twenty-one years: Pseudo-Dion., Chron., p. 154, lines 3-8 = p. 115. He died in the year 1014 Sel. (702/703) after ruling over the Arabs for twenty-one years and was succeeded by Walid 1: Pseudo-Dion., Chron., p. 155, lines 1-4 = p. 116. Son of Marwan 1, he succeeded his father as caliph; he was faced with widespread rebellion and so he made a ten-year peace with the Romans and then gradually dealt with the rebels (and cf. Abdullah 3): Mich. Syr. II 469. When the emperor Justinian II (Ioustinianos 1) broke the peace, he sent his brother Muhammad 2 to invade the territory of the Romans: Mich. Syr. II 470. He died at Mopsouestia in the year 1017 Sel. (705/706) and was succeeded by his son Walid 1: Mich. Syr. II 478.

He was nicknamed "Father of flies" ('Abha da-dhebhabhe) because blood which seeped round his teeth allegedly attracted flies: Bar Hebr., p. 103. He succeeded his father Marwan 1 as caliph (allegedly after an eight year gap) and reigned for thirteen years and six months; he made peace with the Romans, agreeing to pay each day one thousand gold pieces, a horse and a slave, and in return the Romans would withdraw their brigand allies from Arab territory; he also agreed to share control of Cyprus, but ceded Armenia, Gurzan (Derzene), Arzan (Arzanene) and Azerbaijan to the Romans; he then turned on the rebel Bar Zubair (Abdullah 3) and defeated him: Bar Hebr., p. 103. He appointed a Christian, Athanasios 4, to administer Egypt: Bar Hebr., p. 104. In the year 1015 Sel. (703/704) he sent Maslama 1 on an expedition into the lands of the Romans and he captured Mopsuestia: Bar Hebr., p. 105. In the year 1017 Sel. (705/706) he visited Mopsuestia, now an Arab garrison on the frontier, and died there: Bar Hebr., p. 105, Mich. Syr. II 478. He was succeeded by his son, Walid 1: Bar Hebr., p. 106, Mich. Syr. II 478.

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