Tiberios 2

Prosopography of the Byzantine Empire
Dates698 (taq) / 705 (ob.)
Variant NamesTiberius II (emperor)
TitlesAugustus (office);
Droungarios, Kourikiotai (office);
Emperor (office)
Textual SourcesBar Hebraeus, Chronographia, tr. E. A. W. Budge, The Chronography of Abu 'l-Faraj (London, 1932; repr. Amsterdam, 1976) (history);
Chronicon Anonymi ad annum 1234 pertinens, ed. and tr. J.-B. Chabot, I = CSCO 81-82 (Paris, 1916-20), II = CSCO 109 (Louvain, 1937) (chronicle);
Chronicon ad annum Domini 846 pertinens, ed. E. W. Brooks, tr. J.-B. Chabot, CSCO 3-4 (Louvain, 1904); also tr. E. W. Brooks, "A Syriac Chronicle of the Year 846", Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländ (chronicle);
Chronique de Denys de Tell-Mahré, ed. and tr. J.-B. Chabot (Paris, 1895); tr. A. Palmer, The Seventh Century in West-Syrian Chronicles (Liverpool, 1993), pp. 54-65 (chronicle);
Elias Barshinaya, Chronicle (Eliae metropolitae Nisibeni, Opus chronologicum, pars prior, ed. and tr. E. W. Brooks, CSCO 62 and CSCO 63 (1910) (chronicle);
Liber Pontificalis, ed. L. Duchesne, Le liber pontificalis. Texte, introduction et commentaire, 2 vols. (Paris, 1886-92); re-issued with 3rd vol. by C. Vogel, (Paris, 1955-57) (chronicle);
Nicephorus, Breviarium Historiae, ed. C. Mango, Nikephoros, Patriarch of Constantinople: Short History; prev. ed. C. de Boor Nicephori ArchiepiscopiConstantinopolitani Opuscula Historica Leipzig 1880 (history);
Paulus Diaconus, Historia Gentis Langobardorum, ed. L. Bethmann and G. Waitz, MGH, Scr. Rer. Lang., pp. 12-187; also in MGH, Scr. Rer. Ger. 48, pp. 49-242 (history);
Theophanes Confessor, Chronographia, ed. C. de Boor, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1883-85, repr. Hildesheim/NewYork, 1980); tr. and comm. C. Mango and R. Scott, The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor, Oxford 1997 (chronicle);
Zonaras = Ioannis Zonarae Epitome Historiarum, libri XIII-XVIII, ed. Th. Büttner-Wobst, (Bonn, 1897) (history)
Seal SourcesZacos, G. and Veglery, A., Byzantine Lead Seals, vol. I (in 3 parts) (Basel, 1972).

He was known before his accession as Apsimar and only received the name Tiberios on becoming emperor: Theoph. AM 6177, AM 6190, AM 6191, AM 6194, AM 6198, Nic. Brev. de Boor 40, Mango 41, de Boor 42, Mango 42, Zon. XIV 23. 6 (τὸν Ἀψίμαρον τῶν Κιβυρραιωτῶν ὄντα δρουγγάριον, ὃν αὐτίκα καὶ Τιβέριον μετωνόμασαν), Chron. 1234, §151 (p. 297)('psym'rws). Brother of Heraklios 2: Theoph. AM 6190 (Ἡράκλειόν τε, τὸν γνήσιον αὐτοῦ ἀδελφόν), Theoph. AM 6195 (Ἡράκλειος, ὁ ἀδελφὸς τοῦ βασιλέως), Theoph. AM 6196 (ὁ τοῦ βασιλέως ἀδελφὸς Ἡράκλειος), Theoph. AM 6198 (both mentioned by name but no relationship described between them), Nic. Brev. de Boor 42, Mango 42. He was father of Theodosios 3: Theoph. AM 6245 (Θεοδόσιος ὁ Ἐφέσου, υἱὸς Ἀψιμάρου). See also Theodosios 2. In 698 he was droungarios of a force known as the Kourikiotai which formed part of the thema of the Kibyrrhaiotai (στρατοῦ ἄρχοντα τῶν Κουρικιωτῶν τυγχάνοντα τῆς ὑπὸ Κιβυραιωτῶν χώρας, ὃν δρουγγάριον Ῥωμαίοις καλεῖν ἔθος: Nic. Brev. de Boor 40, Mango 41:20-22; Ἀψίμαρον, δρουγγάριον τῶν Κιβυραιωτῶν εἰς Κουρικιώτας ὑπάρχοντα: Theoph. AM 6190; τῶν Κιβυρραιωτῶν ὄντα δρουγγάριον: Zon.); he was proclaimed emperor in Crete and given the name Tiberios by the army of Ioannes 7 on their return after their defeat in Africa; with his fleet he sailed from Crete to Constantinople which eventually fell to him by treachery; he overthrew Leontios 2, whom he mutilated but allowed to live under guard in a monastery: Nic. Brev. de Boor 40, Mango 41. Theoph. AM 6177, AM 6190, Zon. XIV 23. 6 and 9-12, cf. Chron. 1234, §151 (p. 297) (he came from Cilicia to Constantinople with a large army and overthrew Leontios 2 but did him no harm and allowed him to live in peace), Paul. Diac., Hist. Lang. VI 13 (overthrew Leo (i.e. Leontios 2) and held him in safe custody throughout his reign), Cedr. I 776-777, Leo Gramm. 166, Georg. Mon. 732-733. After reigning for seven years he was overthrown in his turn by Justinian II (Ioustinianos 1, in 705); he was first humiliated and then executed: Nic. Brev. de Boor 42, Mango 42, Theoph. AM 6177, AM 6198, Zon. XIV 24. 19 (captured), XIV 25. 2-3 (humiliated and killed), Chron. 1234, §152 (pp. 297-298), Lib. Pont. 88. 4, Paul. Diac., Hist. Lang. VI 31, Cedr. I 780-781, Leo Gramm. 168-169, Georg. Mon. 733-734.

For his imperial seals, see Zacos and Veglery 28.

In AH 66 (Aug. 685/July 686) = 996 Sel. (684/685) Apsimaros became ruler of the Romans: Elias, Chron., p. 149, 6-10 = p. 72. After Leontios 2 had reigned for three years he was deposed and Apsimaros became ruler of the Romans in his place; he reigned for three years, until Justinian (Ioustinianos 1) returned from exile with an army and killed all the leading Romans: Chron. 849, p. 231, 1-7 = p. 175 (Chabot) = pp. 579ff. (Brooks). The ruler of the Romans Leontios 2 died and was succeeded by Tiberios Apsimar, who ruled for seven years: Pseudo-Dion., Chron., p. 156, 4-6 = p. 117. Apsimar was succeeded by the emperor Justinian (Ioustinianos 1): Pseudo-Dion., Chron., p. 156, 10-13 = p. 117. Tiberios 2 Apsimar was the commander of the army in Cilicia ("the captain of the host of Cilicia, whose name was Apsimaros, who is called Tiberius") in the year 1010 Sel. (698/699) when he overthrew Leontios 2 and became emperor; he subdued the Slavs who had revolted and he raided the land around Samosata, defeating Arab forces and returning with captives and booty: Bar Hebr., p. 104. He was executed with Leontios 2 by Justinian (Ioustinianos 1) after the latter regained the throne: Bar Hebr., p. 105. He was overthrown and executed together with Leontios 2 when Justinian II (Ioustinianos 1) regained the throne; he had succeeded Leontios 2 as ruler of the Romans: Const. Porph., DAI 22, 7ff.; 22, 31ff.

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