Hisham 1

Prosopography of the Byzantine Empire
FloruitE/M VIII
Dates724 (taq) / 743 (ob.)
PmbZ No.2593
Variant NamesIsam;
LocationsResapha (near Kallinikon) (deathplace);
Melitene (Armenia)
TitlesCaliph (office)
Textual SourcesBar Hebraeus, Chronographia, tr. E. A. W. Budge, The Chronography of Abu 'l-Faraj (London, 1932; repr. Amsterdam, 1976) (history);
Chronicon Anonymi ad annum 1234 pertinens, ed. and tr. J.-B. Chabot, I = CSCO 81-82 (Paris, 1916-20), II = CSCO 109 (Louvain, 1937) (chronicle);
Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De Administrando Imperio, ed. G. Moravcsik, trans. R. J. H. Jenkins (Washington, D.C., 1967) (history);
Theophanes Confessor, Chronographia, ed. C. de Boor, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1883-85, repr. Hildesheim/NewYork, 1980); tr. and comm. C. Mango and R. Scott, The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor, Oxford 1997 (chronicle);
Zonaras = Ioannis Zonarae Epitome Historiarum, libri XIII-XVIII, ed. Th. Büttner-Wobst, (Bonn, 1897) (history)

Hisham 1 was the son of Abdulmalik 1 (`Abd al-Malik): Chron. 1234, §164 (p. 309). Brother (Ἰσάμ, ὁ τούτου ἀδελφός) of Yezid 2; in 724 he succeeded his brother as caliph (ἀμηρεύει); he began a policy of building palaces and gardens and led an invasion of the Roman empire but retired with heavy losses: Theoph. AM 6216, Chron. 1234, §163 (p. 309). Successor of Yezid 2 and described, wrongly, as his son; he tried to capture and punish the Jewish sorcerers who had deceived his brother with promises of a long life, but they escaped to Isauria: Zon. XV 3. 4 (cf. Tesserakontapechys 1). He was caliph from 724 to 743. Styled ὁ τῶν Αράβων ἀρχηγός, Theoph. AM 6232; Ἰσάμ, τῆς Ἀράβων ἀρχῆς, Theoph. AM 6234. Father of Mu`awiya 4: Theoph. AM 6218 (Μαυΐας δέ, ὁ υἱὸς Ἰσάμ), Theoph. AM 6224 (Μαυΐας δέ, ὁ υἱὸς Ἰσάμου), Chron. 1234, §164 (p. 310). Father of Sulayman 2: Theoph. AM 6227 (Σουλεϊμάν ὁ τοῦ Ἰσάμ), Theoph. AM 6229 (Σουλεϊμάν, ὁ υἱὸς Ἰσάμ), Theoph. AM 6230 (Σουλεϊμὰν τὴν Ῥωμανίαν ὁ υἱὸς Ἰσάμ), Chron. 1234, §165 (p. 311), §166 (p. 312). Father (actually uncle) of Walid 2: Theoph. AM 6234 (Οὐαλίδ, υἱὸς Ἰσάμ). In 736/737 he used the opportunity afforded by the capture of a Roman from Pergamon (τινα Περγαμηνόν; see Beser 2) who claimed to be the son of Justinian II (Ioustinianos 1), Tiberios 4, to alarm the Romans by giving the pretender imperial honours and an armed escort, sending him to Jerusalem and parading him around Syria: Theoph. AM 6229, Chron. 1234, §165 (pp. 311-312) (in the year 1048 Sel., i.e. 736/737). In 737/738 he went to Melitene when his son Sulayman 2 was raiding Roman territory and carried away many captives: Chron. 1234, §165 (p. 312). In 741 he had all the Christian prisoners held in the cities under him executed; among the martyrs on this occasion was Eustathios 2: Theoph. AM 6232, cf. Chron. 1234, §166 (p. 313) (he gave this order after receiving a (false) report that the emperor Leo III (Leo 3) had killed all Arab prisoners held on Roman territory). He gave permission to the Christians (Χριστιανούς) under him to appoint a Syrian monk Stephanos 9 to the long vacant patriarchate of Antioch: Theoph. AM 6234. He died in 743 and was succeeded as caliph by Walid 2: Theoph. AM 6234, Chron. 1234, §168 (p. 314) (in the year 1054 Sel., i.e. 742/743). His surviving relatives and freedmen (πάντας τοὺς συγγενεῖς καὶ ἀπελευθέρους Ἰσάμ) were murdered at Emesa in 746 by the caliph Marwan II (Marwan 2): Theoph. AM 6237, cf. Chron. 1234, §168 (p. 314) (his family and followers suffered under Walid 2). Son of `Abd al-Malik (Abdulmalik 1) and brother of Yezid 2, he succeeded his brother as caliph in the year 1037 Sel. (725/726); under him the Arabs captured and destroyed Neokaisareia in Pontus: Bar Hebr., p. 109, Mich. Syr. II 490. After the Arabs captured Nikaia he ordered the prisoners to be executed because he had heard that the emperor Leo III (Leo 3) had executed Arab prisoners: Bar Hebr., p. 110, Mich. Syr. II 501. Father of Mu'awiya 4 and Sulayman 2: Bar Hebr., p. 110. In the year 1048 Sel. (736/737) he treated the pretender Bashir (Beser 2) with imperial honours until he was exposed as a fraud: Bar Hebr., p. 110. He died in the year 1056 Sel. (744/745) at Resapha near Kallinikon, and was succeeded by his nephew Walid 2: Bar Hebr., p. 111, Mich. Syr. II 502. Isam (Hisham 1) succeeded Azid (Yezid II; Yezid 2) as ruler of the Arabs and ruled for nineteen years; he was then succeeded by Marwan 2: Const. Porph., DAI 22, 54ff.

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