Sulayman 2

Prosopography of the Byzantine Empire
FloruitE/M VIII
Dates733 (taq) / 750 (ob.)
Variant NamesSouleiman;
Swlymn br H'shm
LocationsEdessa (Syria);
Syria (residence);
Tyana (Cappadocia);
Textual SourcesChronicon Anonymi ad annum 1234 pertinens, ed. and tr. J.-B. Chabot, I = CSCO 81-82 (Paris, 1916-20), II = CSCO 109 (Louvain, 1937) (chronicle);
Chronique de Denys de Tell-Mahré, ed. and tr. J.-B. Chabot (Paris, 1895); tr. A. Palmer, The Seventh Century in West-Syrian Chronicles (Liverpool, 1993), pp. 54-65 (chronicle);
Elias Barshinaya, Chronicle (Eliae metropolitae Nisibeni, Opus chronologicum, pars prior, ed. and tr. E. W. Brooks, CSCO 62 and CSCO 63 (1910) (chronicle);
Michael the Syrian, Chronicle, ed. and tr. J.-B. Chabot, La chronique de Michel le Syrien (Paris, 1899-1904) (chronicle);
Theophanes Confessor, Chronographia, ed. C. de Boor, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1883-85, repr. Hildesheim/NewYork, 1980); tr. and comm. C. Mango and R. Scott, The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor, Oxford 1997 (chronicle)

Sulayman 2 was the son of the caliph Hisham (Hisham 1) (and brother of Mu`awiya 4): Theoph. AM 6227 (Σουλεϊμάν, ὁ τοῦ Ἰσάμ), Theoph. AM 6229 (Σουλεϊμάν, ὁ υἱὸς Ἰσάμ), Chron. 1234, ¤164 (p. 310), ¤165 (p. 311),¤166 (p. 313), ¤170 (p. 316), ¤172 (pp. 317-318), ¤174 (p. 320), ¤184 (p. 339). In c. 733/734 he led a raid into Roman territory but accomplished nothing: Chron. 1234, ¤164 (p. 310). In 736 he led an attack on the land of the Armenians but accomplished nothing: Theoph. AM 6227. In 738 he took a large number of prisoners in Asia; among them was a citizen of Pergamum (Beser 2) who claimed to be Tiberios, the son of the former emperor Justinian II (see Tiberios 4): Theoph. AM 6229, cf. Chron. 1234, ¤165 (pp. 311-312) (the story of the false Tiberios 4, whom Sulayman 2 eventually had crucified at Edessa when his deceit was revealed), Mich. Syr. II 503-504. In 739 he led an attack on the Roman empire, sacked the stronghold of Sideroun and captured Eustathios 2: Theoph. AM 6230, cf. Chron. 1234, ¤165 (p. 312) (possibly referring to the same occasion). In May 740 he mounted an attack on the empire jointly with his fellow-generals Gamer 1, Melich (Malik 1) and Batal (al-Battal 1); while Gamer raided Asia and Melich and Batal attacked Akroinon, Sulayman 2 with sixty thousand men attacked the district around Tyana in Cappadocia; he captured many men and women and beasts and returned safely but Melich (Malik 1) and Batal (Al-Battal 1) suffered a major defeat near Akroinon and only a few of their men survived and managed to join Sulayman 2 and return safely to Syria: Theoph. AM 6231.

On orders from his father Hisham 1, who had heard, wrongly, that the emperor Leo III (Leo 3) had killed all Arab prisoners on Roman territory, Sulayman 2 killed all Roman prisoners held by the Arabs: Chron. 1234, ¤166 (p. 313). In 742 he commanded Arab forces which took advantage of the civil war between Artabasdos 1 and the emperor Constantine V (Konstantinos 7) and carried off a large number of Romans into captivity: Theoph. AM 6233 (τοῦ Σουλεϊμὰν στρατηγοῦντος αὐτοῖς). In 744 he was defeated in battle near Damascus by Marwan 2; in his flight he killed the children of Walid 2 (the caliph al-Walid II) in Damascus and fled from Damascus with a large quantity of money: Theoph. AM 6235. In 745 having reassembled his forces he again met Marwan 2 in battle and was heavily defeated and fled to Palmyra and then into Persia: Theoph. AM 6237. He was engaged in the civil wars that followed the death of his father and suffered defeats at the hands of Marwan 2: Chron. 1234, ¤170 (p. 316), ¤172 (pp. 317-318), ¤¤174-175 (pp. 320-322). After the death of Marwan 2 (in 750) he went to Abu al-Abbas (as-Saffah 1) seeking honour but was executed by him, along with his son Ayyub: Chron. 1234, ¤184 (p. 339).

In AH 123 (Nov. 740/Nov. 741) = 1052 Sel. (740/741) Sulayman 2 ibn Hisham invaded the lands of the Romans and returned victorious: Elias, Chron., pp. 168, 25-169, 1 = p. 80. In AH 124 (Nov. 741/Nov. 742) = 1053 Sel. (741/742) Sulayman 2 ibn Hisham invaded the lands of the Romans and encountered the son of (the emperor) Leo 3 (i.e. Konstantinos 7): Elias, Chron., p. 169, 8-12 = pp. 80ff. In the year 1045 Sel. (733/734) Sulayman 2 invaded the lands of the Romans and captured Pelozonion (Plwz(w)ny'), taking captive all the inhabitants; he was allegedly told by the emperor Leo 3 to seize Pelozonion and do whatever he wished, because at the time Leo 3 was investing Constantinople where Artabas (Artabasdos 1) the rebel was resisting him with troops drawn from Pelozonion: Pseudo-Dion., Chron., pp. 171, 16-172, 7 = pp. 129ff. In the year 1057 Sel. (745/746) Sulaiman 2 ibn Hisham was among those who fled after Marwan defeated his opponents, the supporters of `Abbas, at `Ain Djara: Pseudo-Dion., Chron., p. 189, 14-19 = pp. 144ff.

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